October 12, 2012
They have also been referred to as "nature's biological response modifiers" because they are able to modify the body's reaction to vascular disease, cholesterol reduction, carcinogens, allergens, and viruses.
Flavonoids are synthesized by and widely distributed in plants. Their jobs are many. The most important being supplying the pigments for flower coloration producing yellow, red, and blue pigmentation in petals designed to attract pollinator animals. They also protect plants from microbes, fungi and insects.
According to the nutrition science research team at the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University, many of the biological effects of flavonoids appear to be related to their ability to modulate gene-based cell-signaling pathways associated with degenerative disease, rather than their antioxidant abilities.
The Big Three
Relative impact of flavonoid composition, dose and structure on vascular function: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials of flavonoid-rich food products. Kay CD, Hooper L, et al. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Sep 19 [abstract]
Phytochemicals and their impact on adipose tissue inflammation and diabetes. Leiherer A, Mundlein A, Drexel H. Vascul Pharmacol 2012 Sep 12
The Flavonoid Quercetin Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Growth In Vitro and In Vivo. Angst E, Park JL, et al. Pancreas 2012 Sept 20. [abstract]
Inhibition of advanced glycation end-product formation on eye lens protein by rutin. Muthenna P, Akileshwari C, et al. Br J Nutr 2012 Apr; 107(7): 941-9 [abstract]
Barrier protective effects of rutin in LPS-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Lee W, Ku SK, Bae JS. Food Chem Toxicol 2012 Sept. 50(9): 3028-55. [abstract]
The rutin catobolic pathway with special emphasis on quercetinase. Tranchimand S, Brouant P, et al. Biodegradation 2010 Nov;21(6): 833-59 [abstract]
Hesperidin inhibited acetaldehyde-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Yeh MF, Kao St, et al. Toxicol Lett 2009 Feb 10;184(3): 204-10. [abstract]
Bioavailability of orally administered water-dispersible hesperetin and its effect on peripheral vasodilation in human subjects: implication of endothelial function of plasma conjugated metabolites. Ikemura M, Saski Y. et al. Phytother Res. 2012 Sep, 26(9): 1272-7/ [abstract]
Systematic phosphorylation analysis of human mitotic protein complexes. Hegermann B, Hutchins JR, et al. Sci Signal 2011 Nov 8,4(198): rs12 [abstract]