Friday Pearl

Brain-Stimulating Chocolate Science

Friday, November 10, 2017

Holiday season arrives shortly, so this delicious good news study will make many people extremely happy.

Results from a study published in the peer-reviewed journal Appetite titled “Chocolate intake is associated with better cognitive function,” strongly suggests that chocolate rarely fails to stimulate synesthesia—particularly in the human female brain.

Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 968 community-dwelling participants aged 23 to 98 years from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Habitual chocolate intake was related to cognitive performance, measured with an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests.

More frequent chocolate consumption was significantly associated with better performance on the Global Composite score, visual-spatial memory and organization, working memory, scanning and tracking, abstract reasoning, and the mini-mental State Examination.

In the absence of effective treatments for neurodegenerative disorders, nutritional practices targeted at preventing or slowing cognitive decline may contribute significantly toward optimizing cognitive functioning across the adult life span.

Chocolate and cocoa products are a rich source of nutrient-dense flavonoids that represent up to 20 percent of the compounds in cocoa beans. The amount of cocoa in chocolate ranges from approximately seven to 15 percent in milk chocolate and 30 to 80 percent in cocoa-intense dark chocolate.

The ability of flavonoid-rich foods to improve cognitive function has been demonstrated in both epidemiological studies and clinical trials.

Two randomized trials have demonstrated improvements in cognitive function following a single dose of chocolate or cocoa flavanols. Benefits included improvement in information-processing speed and work memory within hours of consuming cocoa flavanols or dark chocolate.

It will probably be no surprise to our female readers to learn the studies found that women consume more chocolate than men.

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition "Cocoa, Cognition and Aging (CoCoA) Study" clearly provided evidence that daily consumption of cocoa flavanols can improve cognitive function in healthy, elderly individuals. Consistent with the immediate-effect studies, improvements in processing speed and attentional tasks were also seen following eight weeks of consuming an intermediate to high daily dose of cocoa flavanols.

In contrast to the CoCoA Study, other studies using administration of chocolate or cocoa flavanols, ranging from five days to six weeks, have failed to find statistically significant positive effects on cognition. Unfortunately, the dietary intake questionnaires in the other studies did not differentiate between the consumption of milk, dark, or white chocolate.

The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study investigators suggest that the variability in the flavanol content in chocolate, which varies according to the bean variety, origin, and manufacturing processes, may contribute to the mixed outcomes observed in studies to date on the effects of cocoa flavanols on cognition.

The investigators concluded, it’s evident that nutrients in food exert differential effects on the brain. As has been repeatedly demonstrated, isolating these nutrients and foods enables the formation of dietary interventions to optimize neuropsychological health.

Ellen Troyer, with Spencer Thornton, MD, David Amess and the Biosyntrx staff


Since quality dark chocolate includes far more flavanols than milk chocolate, we suggest spending your brain-health-promoting chocolate calories on unsweetened or very lightly sweetened luscious dark chocolate. It also makes brain health sense to make sure the multiple you are taking or recommending to patients includes generous amounts of flavonoids. 

If you are attending the Academy of Ophthalmology in New Orleans this weekend, don't forget to visit our dear friends at Crestpoint Management in booth 816. 

And while at the Academy of Ophthalmology meeting, please take the time to visit the poster section and look for our favorite nonprofit, global goodwill ambassadors Hawaiian Eye Foundation's poster presentation. 


Chocolate intake is associated with better cognitive function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Chrichton G, Elias M, Alkerwi A, Appetitie. May 2016. [abstract]

Cocoa Flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study - a randomized controlled trial.  Mastroiacova, D, Kwik-Uribe C, et al. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015. [full text]

Cocoa flavanols and cognition: regaining chocolate in old age. Alonso, M. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015. [full text]

Flavoniods, cognition, and dementia: actions, mechanisms, and potential therapeutic utility for Alzheimer disease. Williams, Spencer JPE. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2012. [abstract]

Crestpoint Management, LTD instrument announcement:
Inamura Round Handle Capsulorhexis Forceps 2-716GNR8-5